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By Fred Aftalion

Goals to supply a global standpoint on chemistry, integrating the tale of chemical technological know-how with that of the chemical undefined, and emphasizing vital advancements of the twentieth century.

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The Roman army distributed salt rations called salarius to their soldiers. " Page 3 Mastering new techniques to improve well-being was not enough for the people of the time; they sought to formulate an intellectually satisfying reason for the existence of things. Greek philosophers considered nature to be composed of four fundamental elements, which are described in the works of Plato and Aristotle: fire, air, water, and earth. Four qualities, hot and cold, wet and dry, were associated with these elements.

Friedrich August Kekulé. Courtesy Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection. 43 11. Louis Pasteur. 50 12. Paul Ehrlich. Courtesy Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection. 52 13. Robert Koch, Paul Ehrlich, and Emil Adolph von Behring. Courtesy Société Française Hoechst. 54 14. Alfred Nobel. 56 15. Ernest Solvay. Courtesy Solvay. 59 16. Héroult aluminum furnaces, Froges, 1890. 67 17. George Eastman and Louis Lumiàre. 69 18. Léo Hendrik and Céline Baekeland with their children, Nina and George, Yonkers, New York, about 1900.

He was tried and guillotined on May 8, 1794, at the Place de la Révolution (known today as the Place de la Concorde). " Thus perished a man who literally revolutionized the field of chemistry while rendering immense services to his country. Page 10 Chapter 1 The First Chemical Manufacturers The chemical industry was born in the middle of the eighteenth century out of the demands created by other industries. Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid was needed for the preparation of dyes as well as for the production of hydrochloric and nitric acids used in the treatment of metals.

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