By Samuel Elmo Martin
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Additional resources for A reference grammar of Korean
E 'hangs', ci(s)- -+ cie 'builds', kow- -+ kopta but kowa 'is pretty' - and also in voice-derived forms such as alli- 'informs' +- a-1-. e), which goes back to sehu/- (LCT 449b). e 'walks'. The length on these stems resulted from the blend of a Middle Korean low tone on the first vowel and a high tone on a lost vowel that must have followed the consonant before the lenition took place: *ke 'tu- 'kwo > "ket- 'kwo, then *ke 'tu- ·e > ke ·1-e. A similar history accounts for the vowel length of s-dropping and -w- stems (Martin 1973; Ramsey 1975, 1978); see below.
Initial hw, and especially hwu, is often pronounced as a bilabial fricative [F] by many speakers. Ridel (1881:xv) transcribed the aspirates as "hk hp ht tch", and Underwood (1914) used "hk hp ht" but "ch" (writing the lax c as "j"). This follows the traditional Romanization of Burmese and has certain virtues in handling morphophonemic problems of Korean (see Martin 1982); Starchevskiy (1890) also wrote the aspiration before the consonant (King 1991a). Roth (1936:6) refers to a system like Ridel's as the "French transcription" (with "tj" for the simple /c/ and the geminates "kk pp ss ttj") and he refers to a somewhat similar system except for "htsch" (with "tsch" for the simple /c/ and the geminates "gg dd bb ss dsch") as the "German transcription".
The assimilations and reductions described here take place across words and phrases, when the phonetic cues to their boundaries are omitted, as often happens in normal rapid speech: Acik moluni? ' (/···ngm···/), Wang sepang to kkamcak nollan mas! ta 'that's terrible' /khunnillatta/. 7. Sequence variants. There are certain types of variants which are widely systematic: a given sequence of phonemes for which we always (or always within a morph or a word), find a variant of consistent shape. There are also some which are less predictable, but also widespread, of a similar sort.