By Ranko Matasović
This grammar might be used with a few warning, not just since it used to be written by means of a linguist who's faraway from being a fluent speaker of Kabardian. it's mostly compilatory in nature, and lots of examples have been drawn from the present works on Kabardian through M. L. Abitov, Mukhadin Kumakhov, and others. although, i've got additionally excerpted and analyzed many sentences from the literature, specially from the Nart corpus (Nārtxar, 1951, Nārtxar, 2001), and a few examples have been elicited from local audio system. even though i've got relied seriously at the released scholarly works on Kabardian, my interpretations of the knowledge are often very assorted from these within the to be had literature. i've got attempted to technique the Kabardian language from a typological viewpoint, evaluating its linguistic good points, which can seem unusual to audio system of Indo-European languages, to comparable gains present in different languages of the realm.
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Extra resources for A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian)
E. that Kabardian syntax is nominative-accusative according to this criterion. -af. e. -af. -af. "And the old Adyghean people will become strong again". Besides temporal, the suffix -ž- also has directional (spatial) meaning, signifying the reverse direction of the action. Thus, while k'wan means "to go", k'wažən means "to return", while tən is "to give", təžən is "to give back", etc. g. ba is "a lot, many", naχəba is "more", and naχəbaž is "even more". “ From the descriptive point of view, it can be said that the suffix –ž- indicates that the lowest Macrorole argument of the verb (in traditional terms its „intransitive subject or direct object“) is doubly affected by the action: with nonreflexives, this may mean either that the action is performed twice („again“) on (or by) that argument, or that the action is directed „back“ at it.
Af. "The old man drank sour milk with the guests" Note that haś'axa "guests" is in the Ergative in the preceding example, which shows that the applied argument has the status of the oblique, rather than direct object/undergoer. poss. -eat 54 A genetically cognate comitative/conjunctivity prefix exists in the other NW Caucasian languages, cf. Ubykh dzə-, Abkhaz and Abaza c(ə)-. Abkhaz has another applicative marker, la-, which has instrumental function (Hewitt 2004: 134). -eat "Eat meat with cheese" ХЬэсэн си нaртыху кхъэпыр eзым eйxэм дихьэжaщ Hasan syə nārtəxw qapə-r yazəm yay-xa-m d-yə-haž-ā-ś H.
The verb containing the involuntative prefix can be used in polite questions, and the prefix is best rendered as "perhaps, by chance": Шы къыфIэщIэмылъэгъуayэ пIэрэ? aś'a-mə-łaġw-ā-wa p'ara? -ger. inter. a "hand" and the participle ś'a "doing" (to do something unintentionally is ''to do something using the hand, and not the mind''). A similar, but etymologically unrelated, "involuntative" prefix exists in Abkhaz (-amχa-). g. -af. "The kid made the shirt dirty" As the case marking on argument shows, the verbs containing the factitive prefix are transitive, just like the causative verbs.