Download ACI 318-11: Building Code Requirements for Structural by ACI 318 Committee PDF

By ACI 318 Committee

The "Building Code standards for Structural Concrete" ("Code") covers the fabrics, layout, and development of structural concrete utilized in structures and the place acceptable in nonbuilding buildings. The Code additionally covers the energy review of current concrete structures.

Among the themes coated are: agreement records; inspection; fabrics; longevity necessities; concrete caliber, blending, and putting; formwork; embedded pipes; development joints; reinforcement info; research and layout; power and serviceability; flexural and axial so much; shear and torsion; improvement and splices of reinforcement; slab platforms; partitions; footings; precast concrete; composite flexural contributors; prestressed concrete; shells and folded plate contributors; energy assessment of latest buildings; provisions for seismic layout; structural simple concrete; strut-and- tie modeling in Appendix A; replacement layout provisions in Appendix B; replacement load and power aid elements in Appendix C; and anchoring to concrete in Appendix D.

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Extra info for ACI 318-11: Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (318-11)

Sample text

2 Tape recording Until recently tape recorders dominated the field of vibration recording and, despite advances in rival digital systems, are still the single most important method for storing information in large amounts. A typical standard instrumentation tape recorder will, using approximately 1000m reels of half-inch tape, have a specification that covers most requirements. Two methods of recording are used and can be mixed in one machine with differing frequency ranges. With a tape speed of 60 inches per second, direct recording can achieve an upper frequency limit of about 500 kHz and a lower limit of about 300 Hz.

A,b,c and d are four separate index sections which are scanned electronically. Relative movement from position A to position B advances the phase of the output by 90° Laser and electrical systems 41 interpolation has been achieved it is relatively easy to determine direction of movement and hence whether main fringe transitions should be added or subtracted. Accuracies are remarkably high and errors on CMMs are more likely to be due to slideway straightness or deflection problems than to the grating system.

Accuracy is high, of the order of 1 second of arc or better, and the test shows up pitching errors and once per tooth errors which can be due to helix or profile errors. 5 Principle of error measurement. Pulses from the encoders are multiplied and divided in frequency to give the same average frequency, and then compared for phase that are slightly less accurate but can run at several thousand rpm and give useful information up to about 1200 Hz. An alternative method of processing the information for inspection is to use a computer to carry out the sampling and analysis [1], but it is difficult to obtain a computer that is sufficiently fast to operate at full speed for development work.

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