By Keith Johnson
Totally revised and extended, the 3rd variation of Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics keeps a stability of accessibility and scholarly rigor to supply scholars with a whole advent to the physics of speech.
Newly up to date to mirror the newest advances within the field
encompasses a balanced and student-friendly method of speech, with enticing side-bars on similar topics
contains prompt readings and workouts designed to study and extend upon the cloth in each one bankruptcy, whole with chosen answers
provides a brand new bankruptcy on speech belief that addresses theoretical matters in addition to sensible concerns
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Extra info for Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics (3rd Edition)
So, for example, the second peak in the spectrum occurs at 300 Hz, the third at 450 Hz, and the tenth at 1,500 Hz. The components of the voicing spectrum are called harmonics. Note that the amplitude of each harmonic above the second is a little less than the one just below it in frequency. ) Here is an illustration of what harmonics are. ( John Ohala objects to this illustration because vocal fold vibration produces sound the way a siren does, by modulating an airstream. However, I’ve been unable to come up with a better way to illustrate how harmonics are modes of vibration, even if in the case of a vibrating string the modes of vibration are really the resonant frequencies of the string.
Note also that there is an even faster-moving oscillation that is easiest to see as a double-peaked pattern in the waveform overlaid on some of the 2 ms peaks. 666 ms (the distance between the double peaks), and thus has a frequency of 1,500 Hz. ). So both sounds are composed of the same harmonics, but the relative amplitudes of the harmonics are different. In the spectrum of the voice source, the harmonics decrease steadily in amplitude as their frequency increases; while in the spectrum of schwa the harmonics around 500 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 2,500 Hz, and 3,500 Hz have higher amplitudes than harmonics at other frequencies.
In this way, the natural nonlinearity in the mapping from articulation to acoustic output leads to natural classes of speech sounds. A full inventory of nonlinearities in the articulation-to-acoustics mapping would express, in Stevens’ view, the inventory of distinctive phonetic features that can be used to distinguish meaning in language. In the case of vocal cord activity, the regions of stability (the quantal regions) are easy to identify. We will see some other cases in which the argument is a little more subtle than this.