By Mario Mikulincer PhD, Phillip R. Shaver PhD
New to This Edition:
*Reflects significant advances, together with enormous quantities of latest studies.
*Clarifies and extends the authors' influential version of attachment-system functioning.
*Cutting-edge content material on genetics and at the neural and hormonal substrates of attachment.
*Increased consciousness to the interaction between attachment and different behavioral platforms, reminiscent of caregiving and sexuality.
*Expanded dialogue of attachment methods in counseling and psychotherapy.
*Additional assurance of management, crew dynamics, and religion.
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Additional resources for Attachment in Adulthood, Second Edition: Structure, Dynamics, and Change
The model also postulates hypothetical excitatory and inhibitory “neural circuits” (shown as upwardly directed arrows on the left side of the figure), resulting from recurrent use of secondary strategies. These hypothetical circuits affect the monitoring and appraisal of threats and of attachment figure availability. We assume that all components and circuits in the model, not only the “choice” among secondary strategies for dealing with attachment figure unresponsiveness, can operate in the adult mind either consciously or unconsciously, and either deliberately or automatically.
About vacations or movies) or mutual joking and kibitzing that do not necessarily serve attachment functions. R. S. Weiss (1998) has made useful distinctions between what Bowlby called attachment and affiliation, and has done so even within the context of a particular relationship. An attachment interaction is one in which one person is threatened or distressed and seeks comfort and support from the other. An affiliation interaction is one in which both people are in a good mood, do not feel threatened, and have the goals of enjoying their time together or advancing common interests.
1988) and Fraley and Shaver (2000). 1): (1) proximity seeking following attachment-system activation (the attachment system’s primary strategy), (2) beneficial consequences of using this strategy effectively to attain the support of a security-providing attachment figure, and (3) secondary strategies (called anxious hyperactivation and avoidant deactivation) pursued in response to attachment figure unavailability or unresponsiveness. The model also includes the goals of the primary and secondary attachment strategies, associated beliefs and expectations about self and others, and associated rules for managing distress and close relations.