# Download Axial Flow Fans. Design and Practice by R. A. Wallis PDF By R. A. Wallis

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56) 50 BOUNDARY LAYER A N D SKIN FRICTION RELATIONS Eqs. 56) are graphically presented in Fig. 7 ; the various régimes are indicated. Using the foregoing data, the skin friction coefficient, γ, has been presented as a function of Reynolds number and equivalent roughness height in Fig. 8. The transitional curves are completely arbitrary, especially at the lower Reynolds numbers where they may join either the laminar or turbulent skin friction curves for smooth surfaces. 03 Fig. 7. 1 4 1 5 ° ° (üd/ v ) 1θ6 °7 Smooth and rough limits as function of Reynolds number to cause transition in the laminar layer.

In the subsequent developments, eq. 42) will be used in a universal manner. The results so obtained, for the various cases of zero pressure gradient, approximate closely to those of Blasius who used a fourth power law. 1. Z e r o velocity gradients. For this condition it is usually assumed that the power, n, in eq. 44) where U is the velocity at the centre of the pipe. (i) Flow along a two-dimensional flat plate at zero incidence. Integrating eq. 45) and using the relations in eqs. 47) Eq. 48) and, by substituting in eq.

Since λ is zero, c, . 23) hUjv -Äs 0-008 0O06 c f 0-004 -J^SULE^ ^i^MiNAR IO 3 2X10 2 Re IO 4 2 x 10 s Fig. 3. 42) (i) Flow along a two-dimensional flat plate at zero incidence. Integrating eq. 24) xU fix = and using eqs. 26) Using the relationship between Θ and x given in eq. 24) and substituting in eq. 27) From eq. 29) Gf = 1-372^-1/2 0014 0-012 O010 0008 0006 1 0004 " ^ ^ 2 g ^ ^ 0002 ^v^9 Ό4 Fig. 4. IO5 IO6 IO' Coefficient of overall skin friction, zero pressure gradient (eqs. 49) (ii) Fully developed flow in a pipe.