By David Henry Krinsley
Backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSE) finds the minerals, textures, and materials of sediments and rocks in a lot larger aspect than is feasible with traditional optical microscopy. Backscattered Scanning Electron Microscopy presents a concise precis of the BSE method. This accomplished advisor makes use of considerable photos to demonstrate the kind of details BSE yields and the appliance of the strategy to the examine of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The authors evaluate using this petrographic process on all of the significant sedimentary rock varieties, together with sediment grains, sandstones, shales, carbonate rocks, rock varnish, and glauconite. in addition they describe snapshot research strategies that permit quantification of backscattered scanning electron microscope photos. seriously illustrated and lucidly written, this booklet will supply researchers and graduate scholars with the most up-tp-date examine in this vital geological instrument.
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Extra info for Backscattered scanning electron microscopy and image analysis of sediments and sedimentary rocks
14. A manganese nodule from the Pacific Ocean, showing concentric growth banding. Scale bar = 1000/AID. 15. Detail of internal compositional zonation within a manganese nodule from the Pacific Ocean. Scale bar = 100 jum. 16. K. (Q = quartz; P = porosity; S = siderite); (b) windowed BSE image showing distribution of siderite cement (white); (c) windowed and inverted BSE contrast image showing distribution of porosity (white). Scale bars = 100 JJLVT\. 1 7. K. Scale bar = 200 /xm. 18. 17, showing coating of iron monosulfide (FeS, arrowed) on Mg-calcite crystals.
Modern solid-state detectors have signal to noise characteristics comparable with scintillator-photomultiplier detectors and have the advantage of being compact and relatively inexpensive. However, they are somewhat fragile and subject to breakage unless care is taken to ensure adequate clearance between a sample and the detector. Low-Voltage Backscattered Electron Detectors A number of detectors have been developed specifically to assist image acquisition from sensitive and uncoated samples (mainly biological specimens and nonconducting materials) at low-kV and small probe currents.
A major limitation of the BSE method is that BSE cannot itself distinguish between images of different minerals having the same intensity (gray-scale brightness). A particular problem arises in identification of rock fragments, which may be composed of many different kinds of fine-grained minerals. No published studies have focused on the problem of identifying, and distinguishing among, rock fragments by utilizing BSE. Because rock fragments are prevalent in many sandstones (lithic arenites), difficulty in distinguishing rock fragments may prove to be a major limitation in automated mineralogical identification of lithic sandstones.