By Jean Piaget
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35455) I shall return to -in Chapter Six. According to the first hypothesis, then, the new behavior is the outcome of mutations, these either being viable from the start or else proving viable after selection.
With regard to the first point, the relationship between behavior and evolution, the two aspects that have to be distinguished-and this even at the most elementary level-are behavior's role in selection, which has always been universally recognized (though opinions differ as to its importance), and its possible role in the actual formation of evolutionary variations. This second role, the postulation of which seemed obviously correct to Lamarck and just as obviously wrong-even absurdto orthodox neo-Darwinists, is only now beginning to be BEHAVIOR AND EVOLUTION debated once more.
The second is that of the differentiated adaptation which I propose to call adequation. 3 Now, it so happens that a good many ethologists, out of fidelity to the neo-Darwinist position, attribute an evolutionary role to behavior solely at the level of selection, and not at the level of the actual formation of hereditary variations, despite the close kinship between so many specialized organs and their behavioral functioning; the origins of both, in other words, may be accounted for entirely in terms of chance, and the teleonomic perfection we witness in the end result must thus be ascribed exclusively to selections made after the fact.